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America, Books, and Deer: MAKE AMERICA AN ENDLESS EXPANSE OF OLD-GROWTH FOREST WITH NO CERTAIN BORDERS AGAIN virulentblog: plaid-flannel: Seen in the window at Gulf of Maine Books in Brunswick, Maine. Photo: Bill Roorbach Except America wasn’t an endless expanse of forest with no certain borders. At least not while human beings inhabited it. The idea that native peoples did not cultivate or shape our land and that we had no borders is white propaganda meant to dehumanize and de-legitimize native peoples. This illustration here show Apalachee people using slash and burn methods for agriculture. Fires were set regularly to intention burn down forests and plains. Why would we do this? Well because an unregulated forest isn’t that great for people, actually. We set fires to destroy new forest growth and undergrowth, and to remove trees, allowing for easier game hunting, nutrient enriched soil, and better growth rates for crops and herbs we used in food and medicine. Pre-Colonial New England, where my tribe the Abenaki are from, looked more like an extensive meadow or savannah with trees growing in pockets and groves. Enough woodland to support birds, deer, and moose, but not too much to make hunting difficult. We carefully shaped the land around us to suit our needs as a thriving and successful people. Slash and burn agriculture was practiced virtually everywhere in the new world, from the pacific coast to chesapeake bay, from panama to quebec. It was a highly successful way of revitalizing the land and promoting crop growth, as well as preventing massive forest fires that thrive in unregulated forests. Berries were the major source of fruit for my tribe, and we needed to burn the undergrowth so they could grow. That changed when white people invaded, and brought with them disease. In my tribe, up to 9 in 10 people died. 90% of our people perished not from violence starvation, but from disease. Entire villages would be decimated, struck down by small pox. Suddenly, we couldn’t care for the land anymore. There weren’t enough of us to maintain a vast, carefully structured ecological system like we had for thousands of years. We didn’t have the numbers, or strength. So the trees grew back and unregulated. We couldn’t set fires anymore, and we couldn’t cultivate the land. And white people would make certain we never could again. Timber, after all, was the most important export from New England.  Endless trees and untamed wilderness is a nice fantasy. But it’s a very white fantasy, one that erases the history of my people and of my land. One that paints native peoples are merely parasites leeching off the land, not masters of the earth who new the right balance of hunting and agriculture. It robs us of our agency as people, and takes our accomplishments from us. Moreover, it implies that only white people ever discovered the power to shape the world around them, and that mere brown people can’t possibly have had anything to do with changing our environment. Don’t bring back untamed wilderness. Bring back my fire setters, my tree sappers, my farmers and my fishers. Bring back my people who were here first.  Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_American_use_of_fire#Role_of_fire_by_natives https://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/fsbdev3_000385.pdf http://www.sidalc.net/repdoc/A11604i/A11604i.pdf For those curious I recommend reading Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists and the Ecology of New England.https://books.google.com/books/about/Changes_in_the_Land.html?id=AHclmuykdBQCprintsec=frontcoversource=kp_read_button#v=onepageqf=false
America, Books, and Deer: MAKE AMERICA
 AN ENDLESS
 EXPANSE OF
 OLD-GROWTH
 FOREST WITH
 NO CERTAIN
 BORDERS
 AGAIN
virulentblog:

plaid-flannel:
Seen in the window at Gulf of Maine Books in Brunswick, Maine.
Photo: Bill Roorbach
Except America wasn’t an endless expanse of forest with no certain borders. At least not while human beings inhabited it. The idea that native peoples did not cultivate or shape our land and that we had no borders is white propaganda meant to dehumanize and de-legitimize native peoples.
This illustration here show Apalachee people using slash and burn methods for agriculture. Fires were set regularly to intention burn down forests and plains. Why would we do this? Well because an unregulated forest isn’t that great for people, actually. We set fires to destroy new forest growth and undergrowth, and to remove trees, allowing for easier game hunting, nutrient enriched soil, and better growth rates for crops and herbs we used in food and medicine.
Pre-Colonial New England, where my tribe the Abenaki are from, looked more like an extensive meadow or savannah with trees growing in pockets and groves. Enough woodland to support birds, deer, and moose, but not too much to make hunting difficult. We carefully shaped the land around us to suit our needs as a thriving and successful people. Slash and burn agriculture was practiced virtually everywhere in the new world, from the pacific coast to chesapeake bay, from panama to quebec. It was a highly successful way of revitalizing the land and promoting crop growth, as well as preventing massive forest fires that thrive in unregulated forests. Berries were the major source of fruit for my tribe, and we needed to burn the undergrowth so they could grow.
That changed when white people invaded, and brought with them disease. In my tribe, up to 9 in 10 people died. 90% of our people perished not from violence starvation, but from disease. Entire villages would be decimated, struck down by small pox. Suddenly, we couldn’t care for the land anymore. There weren’t enough of us to maintain a vast, carefully structured ecological system like we had for thousands of years. We didn’t have the numbers, or strength. So the trees grew back and unregulated. We couldn’t set fires anymore, and we couldn’t cultivate the land. And white people would make certain we never could again. Timber, after all, was the most important export from New England. 
Endless trees and untamed wilderness is a nice fantasy. But it’s a very white fantasy, one that erases the history of my people and of my land. One that paints native peoples are merely parasites leeching off the land, not masters of the earth who new the right balance of hunting and agriculture. It robs us of our agency as people, and takes our accomplishments from us. Moreover, it implies that only white people ever discovered the power to shape the world around them, and that mere brown people can’t possibly have had anything to do with changing our environment.
Don’t bring back untamed wilderness. Bring back my fire setters, my tree sappers, my farmers and my fishers. Bring back my people who were here first. 
Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_American_use_of_fire#Role_of_fire_by_natives
https://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/fsbdev3_000385.pdf
http://www.sidalc.net/repdoc/A11604i/A11604i.pdf
For those curious I recommend reading Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists and the Ecology of New England.https://books.google.com/books/about/Changes_in_the_Land.html?id=AHclmuykdBQCprintsec=frontcoversource=kp_read_button#v=onepageqf=false

virulentblog: plaid-flannel: Seen in the window at Gulf of Maine Books in Brunswick, Maine. Photo: Bill Roorbach Except America wasn’t an e...

Children, Complex, and Drugs: ti Taika Waititi Retweeted Zachary @ZedAyySeeKay 26 Jan 30 years ago on January 26, my grandfather Burnum Burnum planted the Aboriginal flag in England to claim it like they did to us. He had his own declaration too. It outraged so many people. It was great #InvasionDay #ChangeTheDate The Bumum Bumum Dearadioa England, 26th.Janua 1988 Pumium Bunum, being a nobdeman Pancient Sinstratia tpoesion of nglandon befatPof he lhoriginal this colonial oupost ue ulih no harm to gou e you that we ae er bring you good mamers, refinement and an opportuniytae a teapartho -a fresh stont and stamps to signhy our seigntyver this domain. ith the arth and shouw you how to get bush tucker fresh stort: nty over For the more advanced,ue bnina the complex lanquage of the Ditiantiaiara,w wil tonh you how to have a soirt bel tucker e do not intend to sowenir pichle andeserue the heads of 2000 of your people, nor to the remains of your Royak as uhs done to our Queen do we intend to pozon yourtr hokes ruqauin la your our vith stycAnine or intohihoic drs onour X000 antiquity, atthough ue nts by measuring the size of your We pledge not to steritze your ulomer to preserve the Caucasian race asof interest to be inctined to conduct exermen nor to separate your chidrenfrom their famitie placed onto the mentality of qovenment h Pe que an absotate undertaking that you shall not b ondouls For the net Pive gee- ratio ns but yuLule en oud the fute Benefits ofyBorigu ap Aiality. At the end of tuo hundred years, ue wil nake a l means and not by conouest. inaldy, ue sotemnly promise not toae a ayg to validate expont your vauable baok to the old country Austratia, and es to destroy three-quarters your trees, but to Action to unite commuunities, neligions and nations in a aninon purpose ฐา" cumaeansibyl: jadedownthedrain: I love Burnum Burnum ❤️💛🖤 more about Burnum Burnum text of the declaration: The Burnum Burnum Declaration England, 26th January, 1988 I, Burnum Burnum, being a nobleman of ancient Australia do hereby take posession of England on behalf of the Aboriginal people. In claiming this colonial outpost, we wish no harm to you natives, but assure you that we are here to bring you good manners, refinement and an opportunity to make a Koompartoo - ‘a fresh start’. Henceforth, an Aboriginal face shall appear on your coins and stamps to signify our sovreignty over this domain. For the more advanced, bring the complex language of the Pitjantjajara; we will teach you how to have a spiritual relationship with the Earth and show you how to get bush tucker. We do not intend to souvenir, pickle and preserve the heads of your 2000 of your people, nor to publicly display the skeletal remains of your Royal Highness, as was done to our Queen Truganninni for 80 years. Neither do we intend to poison your water holes, lace your flour with strychnine or introduce you to highly toxic drugs. Based on our 50,000 year heritage, we acknowledge the need to preserve the Caucasian race as of interest to antiquity, although we may be inclined to conduct experiments by measuring the size of your skulls for levels of intelligence. We pledge not to sterilise your women, nor to separate your children from their families. We give an absolute undertaking that you shall not be placed onto the mentality of government handouts for the next five generations but you will enjoy the full benefits of Aboriginal equality. At the end of two hundred years, we will make a treaty to validate occupation by peaceful means and not by conquest. Finally, we solemnly promise not to make a quarry of England and export your valuable minerals back to the old country Australia, and we vow never to destroy three-quarters of your trees, but to encourage Earth Repair Action to unite people, communities, religions and nations in a common, productive, peaceful purpose. Burnum Burnum.
Children, Complex, and Drugs: ti Taika Waititi Retweeted
 Zachary @ZedAyySeeKay 26 Jan
 30 years ago on January 26, my grandfather
 Burnum Burnum planted the Aboriginal flag in
 England to claim it like they did to us. He had
 his own declaration too. It outraged so many
 people. It was great #InvasionDay
 #ChangeTheDate

 The Bumum Bumum Dearadioa
 England, 26th.Janua 1988
 Pumium Bunum, being a nobdeman Pancient Sinstratia
 tpoesion of nglandon befatPof he
 lhoriginal
 this colonial oupost ue ulih no harm to gou
 e you that we ae er bring you good mamers, refinement
 and an opportuniytae a teapartho -a fresh stont
 and stamps to signhy our seigntyver this domain.
 ith the arth and shouw you how to get bush tucker
 fresh stort:
 nty over
 For the more advanced,ue bnina the complex lanquage of the
 Ditiantiaiara,w wil tonh you how to have a soirt
 bel tucker
 e do not intend to sowenir pichle andeserue the heads
 of 2000 of your people, nor to
 the
 remains of your Royak
 as uhs done to our Queen
 do we intend to pozon yourtr hokes
 ruqauin
 la your our vith stycAnine or intohihoic drs
 onour X000
 antiquity, atthough ue
 nts by measuring the size of your
 We pledge not to steritze your ulomer
 to preserve the Caucasian race asof interest to
 be inctined to conduct exermen
 nor to separate your chidrenfrom their famitie
 placed onto the mentality of qovenment h
 Pe que an absotate undertaking that you shall not b
 ondouls For the net Pive gee-
 ratio ns but yuLule en oud the fute Benefits ofyBorigu ap Aiality.
 At the end of tuo hundred years, ue wil nake a
 l means and not by conouest.
 inaldy, ue sotemnly promise not toae a ayg
 to validate
 expont your vauable
 baok to the
 old country Austratia, and es to destroy three-quarters
 your trees, but to
 Action to unite
 commuunities, neligions and nations in a aninon
 purpose
 ฐา"
cumaeansibyl:

jadedownthedrain:
I love Burnum Burnum ❤️💛🖤
more about Burnum Burnum
text of the declaration:

The Burnum Burnum Declaration England, 26th January, 1988
I, Burnum Burnum, being a nobleman of ancient Australia do hereby take posession of England on behalf of the Aboriginal people. In claiming this colonial outpost, we wish no harm to you natives, but assure you that we are here to bring you good manners, refinement and an opportunity to make a Koompartoo - ‘a fresh start’. Henceforth, an Aboriginal face shall appear on your coins and stamps to signify our sovreignty over this domain. For the more advanced, bring the complex language of the Pitjantjajara; we will teach you how to have a spiritual relationship with the Earth and show you how to get bush tucker.
We do not intend to souvenir, pickle and preserve the heads of your 2000 of your people, nor to publicly display the skeletal remains of your Royal Highness, as was done to our Queen Truganninni for 80 years. Neither do we intend to poison your water holes, lace your flour with strychnine or introduce you to highly toxic drugs. Based on our 50,000 year heritage, we acknowledge the need to preserve the Caucasian race as of interest to antiquity, although we may be inclined to conduct experiments by measuring the size of your skulls for levels of intelligence. We pledge not to sterilise your women, nor to separate your children from their families. We give an absolute undertaking that you shall not be placed onto the mentality of government handouts for the next five generations but you will enjoy the full benefits of Aboriginal equality. At the end of two hundred years, we will make a treaty to validate occupation by peaceful means and not by conquest.
Finally, we solemnly promise not to make a quarry of England and export your valuable minerals back to the old country Australia, and we vow never to destroy three-quarters of your trees, but to encourage Earth Repair Action to unite people, communities, religions and nations in a common, productive, peaceful purpose.
Burnum Burnum.

cumaeansibyl: jadedownthedrain: I love Burnum Burnum ❤️💛🖤 more about Burnum Burnum text of the declaration: The Burnum Burnum Declaration ...

Beautiful, Blessed, and Children: lf only we could all be as happy as these beautiful and blessed Somali children a oo @chakabars Ten facts about Somalia 🇸🇴 1. Somalia comprises of 27 regions and was colonized by both Britain and France and Italy before it gained independence in July 1, 1960 2. Mogadishu is the capital of Somalia and its largest city. It is also known as Xamar. 3. British Somaliland gained independence from Britain on June 26, 1960 and Italian Somaliland gained independence from Italy just a few days after that on July 1, 1960. 4. The majority of Somalis are Sunni Muslims and a smaller percentage follows the Shia Muslim denomination and Sufism. 5. The official languages spoken in Somalia are Somalie and Arabic. 6. The currency of Somalia is Somali Shilling or SOS which has been in use since 1962. 7. Somalia is a semi arid land that experiences a very hot climate as it is located close to the equator. The average temperature round the year is 20 to 40⁰C. Some parts in the north experience temperatures above 45⁰C. 8. This country is the first African nation that was used for flying warplanes by the British. 9. Somalia is the only country in the world that does not possess a central form of government. 10. Agricultural products include cattle, goats, sheep, corn, sorghum, coconuts, sugarcane, mangoes, rice, sesame seeds and beans. They export livestock, hides, bananas, fish and charcoal. chakabars Picture by @yescene she is an amazing photographer, check him out!
Beautiful, Blessed, and Children: lf only we could all be as happy as these
 beautiful and blessed Somali children a
 oo @chakabars
Ten facts about Somalia 🇸🇴 1. Somalia comprises of 27 regions and was colonized by both Britain and France and Italy before it gained independence in July 1, 1960 2. Mogadishu is the capital of Somalia and its largest city. It is also known as Xamar. 3. British Somaliland gained independence from Britain on June 26, 1960 and Italian Somaliland gained independence from Italy just a few days after that on July 1, 1960. 4. The majority of Somalis are Sunni Muslims and a smaller percentage follows the Shia Muslim denomination and Sufism. 5. The official languages spoken in Somalia are Somalie and Arabic. 6. The currency of Somalia is Somali Shilling or SOS which has been in use since 1962. 7. Somalia is a semi arid land that experiences a very hot climate as it is located close to the equator. The average temperature round the year is 20 to 40⁰C. Some parts in the north experience temperatures above 45⁰C. 8. This country is the first African nation that was used for flying warplanes by the British. 9. Somalia is the only country in the world that does not possess a central form of government. 10. Agricultural products include cattle, goats, sheep, corn, sorghum, coconuts, sugarcane, mangoes, rice, sesame seeds and beans. They export livestock, hides, bananas, fish and charcoal. chakabars Picture by @yescene she is an amazing photographer, check him out!

Ten facts about Somalia 🇸🇴 1. Somalia comprises of 27 regions and was colonized by both Britain and France and Italy before it gained indepe...